Singularity dynamics in curvature collapse and jet eruption on a fluid surface


* Institute for Plasma Research and Department of Physics, The University of Maryland, College Park , Maryland 20742, USA
† The
Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel

Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to D.P.L. (e-mail:


Finite-time singularities—local divergences in the amplitude or gradient of a physical observable at a particular time—occur in a diverse range of physical systems. Examples include singularities capable of damaging optical fibres and lasers in nonlinear optical systems, and gravitational singularities associated with black holes. In fluid systems, the formation of finite-time singularities cause spray and air-bubble entrainment, processes which influence air–sea interaction on a global scale. Singularities driven by surface tension have been studied in the break-up of pendant drops and liquid sheets. Here we report a theoretical and experimental study of the generation of a singularity by inertial focusing, in which no break-up of the fluid surface occurs. Inertial forces cause a collapse of the surface that leads to jet formation; our analysis, which includes surface tension effects, predicts that the surface profiles should be describable by a single universal exponent. These theoretical predictions correlate closely with our experimental measurements of a collapsing surface singularity. The solution can be generalized to apply to a broad class of singular phenomena.